Specialists know that; the stability and performance of a structure founded on soil depend on the subsoil conditions, ground surface features, type of construction, and sometimes the meteorological changes. Subsoil conditions can be explored by drilling and sampling, seismic surveying, excavation of test pits, and by the study of existing data.
Elaborate site investigation oftentimes cannot be conducted due to a limited assigned budget. For very favorable sites, such investigation may not be warranted.

Site Investigation

However, if the area is suspected of having deep fill, a high water table, or swelling soil problems, extensive soil investigation will be necessary even for minor structures.
The soil engineers should not accept jobs in problem areas without thorough investigation. Bear in mind that in court of law, limited budgets or limited time frames are not excuses for inadequate investigation. Differing site conditions are a favorite tool of the contractors. They are used as the basis for extra claims on their contracts.
Since a consulting soil engineer cannot afford to treat each site as a potential hazard area, the amount of investigation required will generally be dictated by the judgment and experience of the engineers. If the project is completed on time and under budget, the consultant may still be criticized for being too conservative. On the other hand, if problems are encountered in the project, no number of excuses can relieve consultants of their responsibility.
Basic Data for Site Investigation:
As a consultant, site investigation is probably one of the most important parts of the total inquiry or the soil report. Average owners know very little about engineering, but they do know a great deal about the property they own. Misrepresentation of the observations can often cause a great deal of trouble. For instance, describing the property as located in a low-lying area may devalue the property. Pointing out the cracks in the building owned by someone else in the neighborhood may induce the buyer to decrease the offer and in extreme cases may result in litigation.
Valuable information about the presence of fills and knowledge of any difficulties encountered during the building of other nearby structures may be obtained from talking to older residents of the area.
Much of the site investigation depends on the experience and good judgment of the field engineer or the technician. An experienced field engineer has the sense of a bloodhound; he is able to smell or sense a problem when he visits the site. A red flag will be raised to call for thorough investigation. In a potential swelling soil area, special attention should be paid to the condition and foundation system of the existing
Structures: When the site is located out of town, consulting engineering firms sometimes assign site investigation to a technician or a field man, who has little geotechnical experience. He may ignore some important features which should be pointed out in the geotechnical report. An experienced technician with many years of training in a geotechnical company can be worth more than an engineer freshly out of college with a Ph.D. degree.
Generally, it is a small building with inadequate funding, poor planning, and a low-bidding contractor that presents the most trouble the owner of such project.
Generally considers soil investigation as a requirement fulfillment rather than a protection against foundation failure. Geotechnical engineers should ask for more details regarding the site condition and proposed construction before accepting such assignments.

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